Cynaeda dentalis (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)
Echium vulgare, Belgium, prov. Liège, Herstal, Petite Bacnure © Jean-Yves Baugnée
Large, full depth blotch, mainly in the lower leaves. The opaque centre is strongly inflated. Here the frass is concentrated, and in the end also pupation takes place here. The larvae can also stay in a gall-like, swollen section of the stem. As a result of the mine the leaf is strongly malformed.
Echium is the most important hostplant.
Larva from autumn till June next year (Hering, 19557a); they are full grown in end May, early June (Buhr, 1935b).
BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).
NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).
LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
distribution within Europe
All Europe (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
See Patočka, Patočka & Turčáni.
The mines can occur either in the basal part of the leaf or in the tip, and the larva even can cause stem galls (Hering, 1957a). Buhr (1964a) writes that stam galls occur only in exceptional situations.
Aguiar & Karsholt (2006a), Ahr (1966a), Amsel & Hering (1933a), Buhr (1935b, 1964a), Grabe (1955a), Hering (1955b, 1957a), Houard (1909a), Huemer (2012a), Huertas Dionisio (2007a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Patočka (2001c), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), De Prins & Steeman (2011a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Scalercio, Ienco & Greco (2019a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Sterling (1989a), Szőcs (1977a), Thomann (1956a), Tomasi (2014a), Uffeln (1930a).