Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Cynaeda dentalis

Cynaeda dentalis (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

starry pearl

Cynaeda dentalis imago

Greece, Lefkas, Katouna, © Laurens van der Linde

Cynaeda dentalis mine

Echium vulgare, Belgium, prov. Liège, Herstal, Petite Bacnure © Jean-Yves Baugnée


Large, full depth blotch, mainly in the lower leaves. The opaque centre is strongly inflated. Here the frass is concentrated, and in the end also pupation takes place here. The larvae can also stay in a gall-like, swollen section of the stem. As a result of the mine the leaf is strongly malformed.

host plants

Boraginaceae, oligophagous

Anchusa officinalis; Echium italicum, vulgare; Onosma.

Echium is the most important hostplant.


Larva from autumn till June next year (Hering, 19557a); they are full grown in end May, early June (Buhr, 1935b).


BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2009).

LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

All Europe (Fauna Europaea, 2009).



See Lepiforum, Patočka, Patočka & Turčáni.


The mines can occur either in the basal part of the leaf or in the tip, and the larva even can cause stem galls (Hering, 1957a). Buhr (1964a) writes that stam galls occur only in exceptional situations.


Aguiar & Karsholt (2006a), Ahr (1966a), Amsel & Hering (1933a), Bentley (2008a), Buhr (1935b, 1964a), Fiumi (2018a), Grabe (1955a), Hering (1955b, 1957a), Houard (1909a), Huemer (2012a), Huertas Dionisio (2007a), Kravchenko, Poltavsky, Segerer, ao (2020a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Lepiforum (2023), Patočka (2001c), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Peslier (2007a), Pratt, Yates & Triplet (2000a), De Prins & Steeman (2011a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Scalercio, Ienco & Greco (2019a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Sterling (1989a), Szőcs (1977a), Thomann (1956a), Tomasi (2014a), Uffeln (1930a).

Last modified 3.viii.2023