Epascestria pustulalis (Hübner, 1823)
Large, full depth, brownish, inflated blotch with a mass of frass in its central part. Mine mostly positioned against the midrib. Pupation within the mine; the pupa lies, without a cocoon, in the inflated central part of the mine.
Anchusa seems the most important host plant.
Larvae in May (Drăghia, 1968b).
Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
distribution within Europe
Largest part of Europe, but seems to be missing in the west (not in Norway, the British Isles, Benelux, France, Portugal) (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
Illustrated by Drăghia (1968b). Body grey; head black; prothoracic shield black, with a white median line; pinacula conspicuous, black; thoracic feet black.
See Patočka, Patočka & Turčáni.
Amsel & Hering (1931a), Buhr (1935a, 1964a), Drăghia (1968b, 1972a), Hering (1957a), Kravchenko, Poltavsky, Segerer, ao (2020a), Maček (1999a), Mazurkiewicz, Tumialis & Pezowicz (2013a), Patočka (2001c), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Skala (1951b), Starý (1930a), Szőcs (1977a).