Titanio normalis (Hübner, 1796)
Initially the larva makes some small irregular, full depth blotch mines. Older larvae live in a dirt-covered silken tube that stretches from the ground up to a leaf. At daytime the larva rests near the ground in the tube, at night it mines the leaf from the tube. In the course of its life several leaves are completely mined out in this way. Pupation outside the leaf.
Larvae in September.
Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
distribution within Europe
Southern Europe, as far north as Czechia; moreover all of Russia (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
See Patočka, Patočka & Turčáni.
Hering (1957a), Patočka (2001c), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Szőcs (1977a).