Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Synanthedon culiciformis

Synanthedon culiciformis (Linnaeus, 1758)

large red-belted clearwing

on Alnus, Betula


The larvae lives in a tunnel in the stem, usually between bark and wood, usually near a srem wound. The full grown larva hibernates in a cocoon in the tunnel, then pupates there in spring. The final part of the tunnel, below the cocoon, is filled with wood chips.

host plants

Betulaceae, oligophagous

Alnus glutinosa; Betula pendula.

Birch is the main host plant. There are records from many other tree species, but the reliability often is doubtful.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2018).

larva, pupa

Larva and pupa are extensively described by Bąkowski.


Bachelard (2014a), Bąkowski (2013b), Bąkowski, Celadyn, Hołowiński & Zajda (2011a), Bartsch (1992a), Corley, Maravalhas & Passos de Carvalho (2006a), Ebert (ed., 1997a), Kallies (2003a), Kusdas & Reichl (eds, 1974a), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2001a), Predovnik (2018a), Sage (2005a).

Last modified 23.xi.2021