Synanthedon culiciformis (Linnaeus, 1758)
large red-belted clearwing
on Alnus, Betula
The larvae lives in a tunnel in the stem, usually between bark and wood, usually near a srem wound. The full grown larva hibernates in a cocoon in the tunnel, then pupates there in spring. The final part of the tunnel, below the cocoon, is filled with wood chips.
Birch is the main host plant. There are records from many other tree species, but the reliability often is doubtful.
distribution within Europe
Larva and pupa are extensively described by Bąkowski.
Bachelard (2014a), Bąkowski (2013b), Bąkowski, Celadyn, Hołowiński & Zajda (2011a), Bartsch (1992a), Corley, Maravalhas & Passos de Carvalho (2006a), Ebert (ed., 1997a), Kallies (2003a), Kusdas & Reichl (eds, 1974a), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2001a), Predovnik (2018a), Sage (2005a).