Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Synanthedon loranthi

Synanthedon loranthi (Kralíček, 1866)

on Loranthus, Vlscum


The larva makes short, branched galleries, mainly in the thinner branches, sometimes just below the bark (that then may fissure). Part of the frass is extruded. The larva lives two years. Pupation in a cocoon consisting of frass and saw dust.

host plants

Santalaceae, oligophagous

Loranthus europaeus; Viscum album & subsp. abietis + austriacum, cruciatum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2018).

larva, pupa

Larva and pupa are extensively described by Bąkowski; see also Laštůvka (1983a).


Synanthedon cryptica (Králíček & Povolný, 1977).The status of S. cruciati Bettag & Blasius, 2002, described from Spain and living on Viscum cruciatum, is moot.


Aistleitner (2004a), Bachelard (2014a), Bąkowski (2013b), Bella, Bartsch & Laštůvka (2017a), Bettag & Bläsius (2002a), Ebert (ed,, 1997a), Gelbrecht & Seiger (1999a), Hamborg (1993a), Laštůvka (1983a), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2001a, 2014c), Predovnik (2018a), Pühringer & Kallies (2004a), Varga, Keresztes & Poczai (2012a), Weyh, Nässig & Zub (2010a).

Last modified 29.ix.2021