Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Synanthedon scoliaeformis

Synanthedon scoliaeformis (Borkhausen, 1789)

welsh clearwing

on Betula


The larva makes ascending tunnels between the bark and wood of mature or declining trees with broken branches. Pupation in the gallery, in a tough cocoon. Exit opening ± 5 mm.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula pendula, pubescens.


The larva lives two or three years.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2018).

larva, pupa

Larva and pupa are extensively described by Bąkowski.


Bachelard (2014a), Bąkowski (2013b), Bąkowski, Celadyn, Hołowiński & Zajda (2011a), Bartsch (1992a), Bland (1989a), Ebert (ed, 1997a), Hirschi (2021a), Kusdas & Reichl (eds, 1974a), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2001a, 2014c, 2019a), Predovnik (2018a), Pühringer (1998a, 2000a), Sage (2005a).

Last modified 3.ii.2021