Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Epinotia bilunana

Epinotia bilunana (Haworth, 1811)

crescent bell

on Betula

gall

the larva, a caterpillar, lives during the summer in a female catkin, that may become somewhat disfigured, and finally is eaten out completely. The larve hibernates in the catkin and in spring pupates either there, or in the litter.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula pendula, pubescens.

larva

see Swatschek.

pupa

see Patočka & Turčáni/

synonyms

Epiblema bilunana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973), Buhr (1964a), Dantart (2010b), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Szőcs (1977a), Thomann (1956a).

Last modified 15.iii.2020