Epinotia fraternana (Haworth, 1811)

silver-barred bell

mine

Egg generally at the upper side of the tip of a needle. The larva spins a number of needles together in a more or less conical spinning, then mines out one needle after the other. The larva enters and leaves a needle through the same opening, mostly in the distal half of the needle. Most frass is ejected, part of it is trapped in the spinning. During feeding pauses the larva uses to rest in a mine. Most mines in the older needles. Pupation external.

hostplants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Abies alba, grandis, cephalonica, nordmanniana.

phenology

Larvae from August till October; hibernation as larva, pupation in spring (Bradley ao, 1979a).

BENELUX

BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).

LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

From Scandinavia to the Iberian Peninsula, Italy, and Greece, and from Ireland to the Baltic States and Romania (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

larva

Body light green; head, pronotum and anal plate light brown; anal comb present, brown, with 4-7 prongs; thoracic legs green; pinacula brown (Bradley ao, 1979a; Patočka, 1960a).

synonyms

Epinotia proximana (Herrich-Schäffer, 1911).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Buhr (1935a), Hering (1957a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Maček (1999a), Patočka (1990a), Robbins (1991a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a).

mod 28.viii.2018