Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Epinotia immundana

Epinotia immundana (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1839)

common birch bell

on Alnus, Betula


From autumn till spring the larva lives in a male catkin, causing it to deform somewhat. Eventually the larva moves to a developing bud.

host plants

Betulaceae, oligophagous

Alnus glutinosa; Betula.


Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni, Swatschek.


Epiblema immundana.


Buhr (1964a), Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Corley (2005a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Last modified 4.ii.2020