Epinotia nanana (Treitschke, 1835)
small spruce bell
Picea abies, Dronten, Roggebotbos © Hans Jonkman
frass-covered silken tube
from the base the needles are completely mined out
before the hibernation the larva mines a few needles completely out, then hibernates in a needle. After hibernation another number of needles is completely mined out from their base. The mined needles are held together by a frass-incrusted silken tube. Most frass in the tube, a small fraction in the mines. The larva mines all its life. Pupation external, mostly in the soil, sometimes in the tube (Freeman, 1967a; Hering, 1957a).
Picea abies, sitchensis.
Larvae from autumn till April, May (Bradley ea, 1979a).
BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).
NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).
LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
distribution within Europe
All Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
Offwhite to brownish, head, pronotum and thoracic feet black. Prolegs with c. 22 crochets in a single row. Anal comb absent (Bradley ao, 1979a; Swatschek, 1958a).
Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Buhr (1935b), Duncan (2006a), Freeman (1967a), Hering (1957a), Huisman & Koster (2000a, Kuchlein & de Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Robbins (1991a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Swatschek (1958a), Szőcs (1977a).