Epinotia nanana (Treitschke, 1835)
small spruce bell
Picea abies, Dronten, Roggebotbos © Hans Jonkman
frass-covered silken tube
from the base the needles are completely mined out
before the hibernation the larva mines a few needles completely out, then hibernates in a needle. After hibernation another number of needles is completely mined out from their base. The mined needles are held together by a frass-incrusted silken tube. Most frass in the tube, a small fraction in the mines. The larva mines all its life. Pupation external, mostly in the soil, sometimes in the tube (Freeman, 1967a; Hering, 1957a).
Larvae from autumn till April, May (Bradley ea, 1979a).
BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).
NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).
LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
distribution within Europe
All Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
Off-white to brownish, head, pronotum and thoracic feet black. Prolegs with c. 22 crochets in a single row. Anal comb absent (Bradley ao, 1979a; Swatschek, 1958a).
Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Buhr (1935b), Disqué (1905a), Duncan (2006a), Freeman (1967a), Hering (1957a), Huisman & Koster (2000a), Kuchlein & de Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Pinzari, Pinzari & Zilli (2006a), Robbins (1991a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Swatschek (1958a), Szőcs (1977a).