Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Epinotia nanana

Epinotia nanana (Treitschke, 1835)

small spruce bell

Epinotia nanana: damage on Picea abies

Picea abies, Dronten, Roggebotbos © Hans Jonkman

Epinotia nanana: frass-covered silken tube

frass-covered silken tube

Epinotia nanana: mined needles

from the base the needles are completely mined out


before the hibernation the larva mines a few needles completely out, then hibernates in a needle. After hibernation another number of needles is completely mined out from their base. The mined needles are held together by a frass-incrusted silken tube. Most frass in the tube, a small fraction in the mines. The larva mines all its life. Pupation external, mostly in the soil, sometimes in the tube (Freeman, 1967a; Hering, 1957a).

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Picea abies, sitchensis.


Larvae from autumn till April, May (Bradley ea, 1979a).


BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2009).

LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

All Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009).


Offwhite to brownish, head, pronotum and thoracic feet black. Prolegs with c. 22 crochets in a single row. Anal comb absent (Bradley ao, 1979a; Swatschek, 1958a).


Steganoptycha nanana.


Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Buhr (1935b), Disqué (1905a), Duncan (2006a), Freeman (1967a), Hering (1957a), Huisman & Koster (2000a, Kuchlein & de Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Robbins (1991a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Swatschek (1958a), Szőcs (1977a).

Last modified 16.x.2019