Epinotia subsequana (Haworth, 1811)
dark spruce bell
Eggs are deposited in groups of 4-5 on top of the midrib of a young needle. The larva penetrates a needle through an oval opening made in the lower half of a leaf, eats its way up to the tip, then down again, finally leaving the leaf through the same opening. A number of needles are mined in this way. The crossing is protected by spinning between the needles. After a first moult the larva begins to mine less young leaves. Older larvae live free among spun needles.
Larvae in June – July; hibernation as pupa (Patočka, 1960a).
BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).
NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).
LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
distribution within Europe
All Europe (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
Head black or yellowish brown with black sides; pronotum black. Body pale yellowish to greyish green; pinacula inconspicuous (Bradley ao, 1979a; Patočka, 1960a).
Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2004a, 2005a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Patočka (1960a), Robbins (1991a), Roweck & Savenkov (2013a).