Epinotia tedella (Clerck, 1759)
common spruce bell
Picea abies, Belgium, prov. Namen, Graide-Station © Jean-Yves Baugnée
The larva completely mines a group of c. 15 needles. The larva penetrates the base the needles. Most frass is deposited outside the mines. The mined needles are surrounded by a light spinning, especially around their bases, therefore do not drop quickly. Pupation external.
Larvae from August till October; hibernation as full fed larva (Hering, 1957a).
BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).
NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).
LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
distribution within Europe
Almost all Europe, except the Iberian Peninsula and the Mediterranean Islands (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
Larva light brown or dirty white with two reddish brown subdorsal lines. Head and pronotum dark brown, anal plate greyish brown. Prolegs with c. 20 crochets in a single row (Bradley ao, 1979a; Swatschek, 1958a).
Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Buhr (1935b), van Frankenhuyzen & Houtman (1972a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Hering (1957a), Koch (1928a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Robbins (1991a), Sefrová (2005a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Swatschek (1958a), Szőcs (1977a).