Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Epinotia tetraquetrana

Epinotia tetraquetrana (Haworth, 1811)

square-barred bell

on Alnus, Betula

Epinotia tetraquetrana: gall on Beula pendula

Betula pendula, Belgium, prov Namur, Viroinval, Oignies © Stéphane Claerebout: ejected frass

Epinotia tetraquetrana: larva

larva in opened gall

Epinotia tetraquetrana: gall on Alnus glutinosa

Alnus glutinosa, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Arlon, Landbruch; © Jean-Yves Baugnée

Epinotia tetraquetrana: gall on Alnus glutinosa



The young, off-white larva bores in a one year old shoot, that is weakly swollen; the gall is vacated through a hole in a leaf axil, after which it lives in a leaf roll.



Alnus glutinosa, incana, viridis; Betula pendula.

egg, larva, pupa

see Schmid.


Epiblema tetraquetrana.


Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Buhr (1965a), Cogolludo (1921a), Corley, Marabuto, Maravalhas ao (2011a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Disqué (1905a), Houard (1908a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Robbins (1991a), Roskam (2009a), Schmid (2019a), Szőcs (1977a), Tomasi (2014a), Žikić, Ritt, Colacci, ao (2019a).

Last modified 2.ii.2023