cf Pseudococcyx turionella (Linnaeus, 1758)
pine bud moth
Pinus sylvestris, Deurne NB, Stippelbergen; © Arnold Grosscurt
developing lateral buds
Blastesthia, Evetria, turionella; Evetria turionana (Haworth, 1811).
In the cecidological literature galls like these are associated with the common (in forestry considered noxious), species Rhyacionia buoliana. In fact, the larvae of several tortricids live as borer in the buds and young shoots of pine trees, causing rather similar damage symptoms. Of the more rare species the biology is not known in sufficient detail to enable discrination, but at least the equally common P. turionella should be considered as a potential cause. The larva of buoliana bores a tunnel from the base of a shoot upwards; this causes the shoot to bend (“posthorn shoot”); when this happens to the main shoot this cause a permanent bend in the later trunk. The larva of turionella empties a terminal bud, then burrows for a short distance downwards. Lateral buds around the dead terminal bud then get the opportunity to develop into shoots, causing a splaying or forking of the branch.
Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Buhr (1965a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Schimitschek (1955a), Schwerdtfeger (1981a).