Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana (Saxesen, 1840)
Abies grandis, Belgium, prov. Namur, Lompret: possibly a youth mine of ratzeburgiana; © Stéphane Claerebout
The young larva mines a young needle from the tip down to the base. From there it bores itself into the shoot, then continues living as a borer Hering (1957a).
Mines in spring (Hering, 1957a).
BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).
NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).
LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
distribution within Europe
From Fennoscandia to the Pyrenees, Italy, and Romania, and Ireland to Central Russia (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
Dirty yellow green with a light brown head, pronotum, and thoracic feet. Pinacula unusually large, dark brown. Anal comb present. Prolegs wth c. 32 crochets in a double row (Bradley ao, 1979a; Swatschek, 1958a).
The status of this species as a miner is unclear. Bradley ao make no allusion to a mining habit. It is difficult to imagine how the behaviour of the young larva, as described by Hering, would apply equally to Picea and Pinus, with its much longer leaves. Perhaps the species does not behave as a miner under all circumstances and on all of its host plants.
Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hering (1957a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Robbins (1991a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Szőcs (1977a).