Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Cacoecimorpha pronubana

Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübner, 1799)

carnation tortrix

on herbs

Cacoecimorpha pronubana

Hoofddorp, 18.vii.2016 © Laurens van der Linde


Generally the “Mediterranean carnation leafroller” is not a leafminer, but in plants with a thick cuticula the first larval instar may be forced to mine. The result then is a full depth gallery of some cm with irregularly scalloped sides; all frass is ejected. Usually the larvae live free among spun young leaves.

host plants

Strongly polyphagous

Arbutus; Armeria pungens; Artemisia verlotiorum; Asphodelus; Bassia scoparia; Bupleurum fruticosum; Cercis siliquastrum; Cistus calycinus; Citrus; Daphne gnidium; Dianthus; Dorycnium rectum; Erigeron canadensis; Euonymus japonicus; Euphorbia amygdaloides; Fragaria; Fuchsia; Hedera helix; Helichrysum italicum subsp. picardii; Hippophae rhamnoides; Hylotelephium spectabile; Hypericum; Juniperus squamata; Laurus nobilis; Lavandula stoechas; Ligustrum; Lycopersicon esculentum; Malus dumestica; Melilotus; Mentha suaveolens; Myrtus; Nepeta; Pelargonium; Picea glauca; Pyrus bourgaeana; Retama monosperma; Rhamnus lycioides; Robinia; Rosa; Rosmarinus; Rubus; Salix; Sixalix atropurpurea; Skimmia japonica; Tamarix; Thuja occidentalis;Viburnum tinus; Vitis vinifera.

Carnation is not only the main host plant, but also one of the plants where the species sometimes occurs as a miner.


Larvae in June and August – September (Hering, 1957a); more generations in southern regions and greenhouses.


BE recorded (Phegea, 2010).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2010).

LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010).

distribution within Europe

From the Netherlands to Iberia and the Mediterranean Islands, and from Ireland to Romania (Fauna Europaea, 2010).


Body brownish to dark greenish grey; pinacula lighter. Head light to dark brown; prothoracic plate greenish yellow with black markings. Under strong magnification the integument is covered with a fine brown spinulation (Swatschek, 1958a; Bradley ao, 1973a).


See Patočka & Turčáni (2005a).


May also occur in greenhouses, and especially then not rarely a serious pest.


Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Buchner (2004a), Corley (2005a), Corley, Marabuto, Maravalhas ao (2011a), Deutsch (2012a), Fazekas (2019b), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Hering (1957a), Huertas Dionsio (2007a), Huertas Dionisio, Vázquez García & Sánchez Gullón (2013a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Nunes (2021a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), De Prins (1998a), Requena i Miret (1998a), Robbins (1991a), Rösch & Schmitz (2014a), Simoglou, Avtzis, Baixeras, ao (2021a), Stigter (1995a), Swatschek (1958a), Vegliante & Zilli (2007a).

Last modified 4.ix.2023