A quite small, mainly tropical family, in NW Europe represented only by the genus
Batrachedra, with one species mining on Picea abies. The British species are treated by Koster (2002a).
Stehr (1987a) presents a detailed illustration of the larva of an American Batrachedra-species: well-chitinised head an prothoracal shield; 4+1 pairs of prolegs with the crochets all of equal size and in a single row.
Koster (2002a), Koster & Sinev (2003a), Stehr (1987a).