Coleophora betulella Heinemann, 1877
white birch case-bearer
Betula pubescens, Helenaveen, ‘t Zinkske
Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Namur, Andenne; © Jean-Yves Baugnée
Prior to hibernation the young larva makes fleck mines; in spring window feeding takes place. In its final stage the larva lives in a generally dull, rough pistol case about 7 mm in length, that with a mouth angle of 30°-45° is standing obliquely on the leaf.
Betula pendula, pubescens.
Larvae are full grown in eind May – early June (Emmet ao, 1996a).
BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).
NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).
LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).
distribution within Europe
Entire Europe, excluding the Balkan peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2008).
Described by Suire (1961a).
Coleophora buettneri Rössler, 1881; C. ibipennella: Stainton, Sich ao.
The nipple-shaped egg is deposited at the underside of the leaf. The merging larva bores through the floor of the egg into leaf, and starts making a small mine. Soon it makes a small hole in the lower epidermis. Through this it deposits a small heap of frass grains, kept together by silk. More frass and silk are added. Finally the larva enters this heap, cuts it loose from the leaf and thus has made the beginning of its case. The case is gradually enlarged by the addition of silk to the rim of the mouth (Sich, 1921a).
Baldizzone (1979a, 1985d, 1989c), Baldizzone, van de Wolf & Landry (2006), Biesenbaum & van der Wolf (1999a), Drăghia (1968b), Emmet, Langmaid, Bland ao (1996a), Hering (1957a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2001a, 20004a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Leutsch (2011a), Patzak (1974a), De Prins (2010a), Razowski (1990a), Schütze (1931a), Sich (1921a), Sønderup (1949a), Stark & Buchner (2016a), Suire (1961a), Toll (1952a, 1962a).