Coleophora betulella Heinemann, 1877

white birch case-bearer

Coleophora betulella case

Betula pubescens, Helenaveen, ‘t Zinkske

Coleophora betulella case

Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Namur, Andenne; © Jean-Yves Baugnée

mine

Prior to hibernation the young larva makes fleck mines; in spring window feeding takes place. In its final stage the larva lives in a generally dull, rough pistol case about 7 mm in length, that with a mouth angle of 30°-45° is standing obliquely on the leaf.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula pendula, pubescens.

phenology

Larvae are full grown in eind May – early June (Emmet ao, 1996a).

BENELUX

BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

distribution within Europe

Entire Europe, excluding the Balkan peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

larva

Described by Suire (1961a).

synonyms

Coleophora buettneri Rössler, 1881; C. ibipennella: Stainton, Sich ao.

notes

The nipple-shaped egg is deposited at the underside of the leaf. The merging larva bores through the floor of the egg into leaf, and starts making a small mine. Soon it makes a small hole in the lower epidermis. Through this it deposits a small heap of frass grains, kept together by silk. More frass and silk are added. Finally the larva enters this heap, cuts it loose from the leaf and thus has made the beginning of its case. The case is gradually enlarged by the addition of silk to the rim of the mouth (Sich, 1921a).

references

Baldizzone (1979a, 1985d, 1989c), Baldizzone, van de Wolf & Landry (2006), Biesenbaum & van der Wolf (1999a), Drăghia (1968b), Emmet, Langmaid, Bland ao (1996a), Hering (1957a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2001a, 20004a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Leutsch (2011a), Patzak (1974a), De Prins (2010a), Razowski (1990a), Schütze (1931a), Sich (1921a), Sønderup (1949a), Stark & Buchner (2016a), Suire (1961a), Toll (1952a, 1962a).

mod 5.viii.2019