Pancalia nodosella (Bruand, 1851)
young larvae bore in the petiole, but may make irregular blotch mines in the leaves. The older larvae may cause external window feeding, but ultimately they bore in the rootstock (Koster & Sinev, 2003a).
Viola canina, tricolor subsp. curtisii.
Larvae in June, July.
BE recorded (De Prins, 1998a).
NE recorded Koster (1991a).
LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2014).
distribution within Europe
from Germany to Iberia, and from France to the Ukraine (Fauna Europaea, 2014).
The related Pancalia leeuwenhoekella (Linnaeus), possibly also P. schwarzella (Fabricius) bore in the petiole, later in the rhizome, but as far as known they never make mines. Like in nodosella, their presence is betrayed by wilting of the plants.
Corley, Maravalhas & Passos de Carvalho (2006a), Huisman & Koster (1999a), Koster (1991a), Koster & Sinev (2003a)