Vulcaniella extremella (Wocke, 1871)
The mine begins as a short corridor, generally along the midrib. When a side vein is reached an irregular, elongate blotch is made that may reach the leaf margin, and causes the leaf to contract somewhat. Almost all frass is ejected through an opening in the basal part of the mine. When resting the larva retreats into a tunnel clad with silk, and becomes invisible.
In spring the larva preferably lives in the lower leaves, and often changes its mine. Before penetrating a new leaf, a silken tube is made, usually in a vein axil; through this tube later the frass is ejected. In summer the ground leaves have died, the larvae now live in the stem leaves, and no longer change mines.
S. pratensis seems the most important host plant. Mazurkiewicz & Palka (1998a) found a single mine on Salvia verticillata, and took this for a case of xenophagy.
Larvae from April till June (Hering, 1957a).
Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
distribution within Europe
From Poland to the Iberian Peninsula, Italy, and Bulgaria, and from France to Central and South Russia (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
Body pale amber yellow; head, divided prothoracic plate and anal plate blackish brown. See Klimesch (1943b) for a detailed description.
See Klimesch (1943b).
Stagmatophora extremella; Stagmatophora buhri Hering, 1935; Stagmatophora naviella Chrétien, 1907.
In Central Europe limited to the warmest and most strongly insolated habitats.
Hering (1935a, 1957a), Klimesch (1943b), Koster & Sinev (2003a), Mazurkiewicz & Pałka (1998a), Skala (1949a), Szőcs (1977a, 1981a), Zimmermann & Skala (1946a).