Pancalia nodosella (Bruand, 1851)

mine

young larvae bore in the petiole, but may make irregular blotch mines in the leaves. The older larvae may cause external window feeding, but ultimately they bore in the rootstock (Koster & Sinev, 2003a).

hostplants

Violaceae, monophagous

Viola tricolor subsp. curtisii.

phenology

Larvae in June, July.

BENELUX

BE recorded (De Prins, 1998a).

NE recorded Koster (1991a).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2014).

distribution within Europe

from Germany to Iberia, and from France to the Ukraine (Fauna Europaea, 2014).

notes

The related Pancalia leeuwenhoekella (Linnaeus), possibly also P. schwarzella (Fabricius) bore in the petiole, later in the rhizome, but as far as known they never make mines. Like in nodosella, their presence is betrayed by wilting of the plants.

references

Corley, Maravalhas & Passos de Carvalho (2006a), Koster (1991a), Koster & Sinev (2003a)

mod 24.xi.2017