Middle sized Lepidoptera family, with about 200 species in Europe. Most species have mining larvae. Oviposition is to the outside of the plant; the egg is oval, iridescent, with strong lenght grooves (fig. in Parenti 2000a: pl. 14). The larvae, pupae and biology are discussed in Traugott-Olsen & Schmidt Nielsen (1977a); there also illustrations of mines. The British species are treated by Bland (1996a), the eastern European ones by Fal’kovich (1990b).
In our region the mining representatives belong to the genera Elachista, Perittia, and Stephensia. Eliachista species are miners of plants with grassy leaves, real grasses in particular. In such narrow leaves there is little room for variation in form of the mine. Moreover, the larvae of most Elachista‘s are not or unsufficiently described, making it impossible to identify most of the species without rearing.
Fal’kovich (1990b), Parenti (2000a), Parenti & Varalda (1994a), Sruoga ∓ Ivinskis (2005a), Traugott-Olsen & Schmidt Nielsen (1977a).