Elachista bifasciella Treitschke, 1833

mine

Mine descends from just below the leaf tip to half-way the leaf or even lower. The mine remains between leaf margin and midrib; no tissue is left along the leaf margin, but in broadleaved species (Holcus) some uneaten tissue-islands may remain. The mine is somewhat inflated. Frass in a continuous, sometimes double line. The larva makes several mines. Pupation outside the mine.

hostplants

Poaceae, oligophagous

Agrostis gigantea, stolonifera; Brachypodium sylvaticum; Calamagrostis arundinacea, varia, villosa; Corynephorus canescens; Dactylis glomerata; Deschampsia cespitosa, flexuosa; Festuca ovina, rubra; Holcus mollis; Milium effusum; Poa nemoralis; Schedonorus giganteus.

Steuer (1976a) mentions as only hostplants Deschampsia cespitosa en Holcus mollis, and considers records from other species unreliable.

phenology

Larven in spring (Traugott-Olsen & Nielsen, 1977a).

BENELUX

BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).

LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

From Sweden to the Pyrenees, Italy, and Romania, and from the Netherlands to Poland (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

larva

The larva is rather squat. Prothoracal plate with a pair of elongate sclerites that are widened posteriorly; prosternum with an x-shaped sclerite. Anal plate with a semicircular reinforcement (Steuer, 1976a).

pupa

Described by Patočka (1999a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a).

notes

Mainly on forest floor in deep shade. Where the trees are felled the grasses increase, but bifasciella disappears (Steuer).

references

Baran (2005a), Baran & Buszko (2010a), Bidzilya, Budashkin & Zhakov (2016a), Buszko & Baraniak (1989b), Hering (1957a), Huemer (2012a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Parenti & Varalda (1994a), Patočka (1999a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), De Prins (1998a), Schütze (1931a), Steurer (1976a), Traugott-Olsen & Nielsen (1977a).

10/02/2017

mod 23.xi.2017