Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Elachista utonella

Elachista utonella Frey, 1856

bog dwarf


The mine begins somewhere halfway the blade as an upwards running corridor. After a while the direction reverses, and an elongate blotch develops occupying half the width of the leaf. Frass, light green at first, grey later, concentrated in the lowest part of the mine. Pupation external.

host plants

(Juncaceae, Poaceae), Cyperaceae; narrowly polyphagous

Carex acutiformis, brizoides, distans, disticha, echinata, elata, flacca, hirta, muricata & subsp. pairae, paniculata, remota, riparia, spicata, vesicaria; Festuca; Juncus gerardi; Scirus sylvaticus.

In Britain Carex acutiformis is the main host plant (Bland, 1996a).


How hibernation takes place is not clear. In Britain mines are found in March – May, but possibly the species has two generations in continental Europe (Bland, 1996a; Traugott-Olsen & Nielsen, 1977a).


BE recorded (Phegea, 2010).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2010).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010).

distribution within Europe

From Fennoscandia to the Pyrenees and Italy, and from Ireland to Romania (Fauna Europaea, 2010).


Yellowish green to greyish; head black, prothoracic plate light brown.


Described by Patočka (1999a) and Patočka & Turčáni (2005a).


Biselachista utonella; Elachista paludum Frey, 1859.


Doets (1949a) found the mines in Kortenhoef on Carex riparia, “….only on plants growing deeply hidden under willows ….”


Baran, Mazurkiewicz & Pałka (2007a), Bidzilya, Budashkin & Zhakov (2016a), Biesenbaum (1995b), Bland (1996a), Buhr (1935a), Doets (1949a), Ford (1943a), Harper (1995a), Hering (1957a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ellis (2009a), Kaila, Nupponen, Junnilainen, Nupponen, Kaitila & Olschwang (2003a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Parenti & Pizzolato (2015a), Parenti & Varalda (1994a), Patočka (1999a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), De Prins (1998a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a), Sønderup (1949a), Sruoga & Ivinskis (2005a, 2011a), Szőcs (1977a, 1981a), Traugott-Olsen & Nielsen (1977a), Wörz (1957a).

Last modified 29.vii.2019