A large and diverse family with close to hundred genera in Europa, about 600 species. The larvae of some species are true miners all their lives, but many more species make a mine only in their first stage (and then sometimes even facultatively), to continue with window feeding between spun leaves.


Elsner, Huemer & Tokar (1999a), Emmet & Langmaid (2002a), Piskunov (1990a).


mod 9.vii.2018