Caryocolum tricolorella (Haworth, 1812)
Gallery-like full depth mine, mainly in the base of the leaf, with irregularly scalloped sides. Frass in the oldest part of the mine in thick black grains; further on the mine does not contain frass at all. In the transition between the two parts there is a hole in the epidermis from which frass is ejected. Older larvae live free, between spun terminal shoots.
S. holostea is the main host plant; references to S. media are doubtful (Huemer & Karsholt, 2010a).
Larvae in December – April, mining in December – January (Hering, 1957a; Bland, ao, 2002a), sometimes even as early as September (Huemer & Karsholt, 2010a).
BE recorded (Phegea, 2010).
NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2010).
LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010).
distribution within Europe
From Fennoscandia to the Pyrenees, Alps, and Romania, and from Ireland to Central Russia and the Ukraine (Fauna Europaea, 2010).
Young, mining larvae green (Hering, 1957a). Older larvae dull whitish green with five dull pink length lines. Head and prothoracic plate black; pinacula small, black (Bland ao, 2002a).
See Patočka & Turčáni (2005a).
Gnorimoschema, Lita, tricolorella.
Bland, Corley, Emmet ao (2002a), Buhr (1937a), Corley, Merckx, Cardoso ao (2012a), Elsner, Huemer & Tokár (1999a), Hering (1957a), Huemer (1988b), Huemer & Karsholt (2010a), Kaitila (1996a), Klimesch (1954a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), de Prins (1998a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a), Sinev & Shapoval (2015a), Skala (1950a), Sønderup (1949a), Szőcs (1977a).