Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Exoteleia dodecella

Exoteleia dodecella (Linnaeus, 1758)

pine groundling

Exoteleia dodecella mine

Pinus sylvestris, Hilversum (winter): basal side of the mine, with the opening, closed with silk, by which the larva has entered (tip of the needle at left).


The larva enters the needle at about three quarter of its length, at the flat side; the opening is closed with silk (picture above). From here the larve mines upwards (rarely also a small distance downwards).The larva lives in a spacious larval chamber in the lowest part of the mine, lined with stripes of dense spinning. The frass is accumulated in the apical part of the mine. Sometimes one, more rarely two, openings are made to eject part of the frass; these openings too are closed with silk, and are difficult to find. No egg shell is visible at the start of the mine. The larva hibernates in the mine; in the following spring it feeds on the shoots and in spun needles (Hering, 1957a). Pupation external, in a bud (Freeman, 1960a).

host plants

Pinaceae, oligophagous

Larix decidua; Pinus mugo, sylvestris.

Elsner ao (1999a) report the species also from Abies and Picea; none of the other authors cited does support this.


Larvae mine from September till in March.


BE recorded (Phegea, 2010).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2010).

LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010).

distribution within Europe

All Europe (Fauna Europaea, 2010).



See Patočka (1997a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a).


Teleia dodecella.


Especially numerous in industrial regions (Schnaider, 1991a).


Baldizzone (2004a), Baldizzone & Scalercio (2018a), Bland, Corley, Emmet ao (2002a), Buhr (1935b), Corley, Maravalhas & Passos de Carvalho (2006a), Elsner, Huemer & Tokár (1999a), Freeman (1960a), Hering (1957a), Huemer (2012a), Kaitila (1996a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Patočka (1997a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), De Prins (1998a), Requena (2009a), Robbins (1991a), Schnaider (1991a), Skala (1950a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Szőcs (1977a), Zoerner (1969a).

Last modified 26.i.2020