Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Exoteleia dodecella

Exoteleia dodecella (Linnaeus, 1758)

pine groundling

Exoteleia dodecella mine

Pinus sylvestris, Hilversum (winter): basal side of the mine, with the opening, closed with silk, by which the larva has entered (tip of the needle at left).


!-5 Eggs are deposited near the very base of a needle; the empty vacated eggs shells later soon drop off. The larvae emerge around end June. The young larva enters a needle in the lower third of the length, at the flat side, then makes a narrow gallery, 1-5 cm long, more or less running upwards; the gallery is stuffed with frass for most of its length, and has 1-3 openings, that are closed with silk. End of September the youth mine is left, and the larva starts making a large blotch mine in the apical part of the needle; most frass is ejected from this mine. In this mine the larva hibernates. In early spring a third mine is made, in the same needle or in another one. Around April the larva spins one or a group of buds, and enters one of them. Also the pupation takes place inside this bud (Lemarie).

host plants

Pinaceae, oligophagous

Larix decidua; Pinus mugo, sylvestris, uncinata.

Elsner ao (1999a) report the species also from Abies and Picea; none of the other authors cited does support this.


Larvae mine from September till in March.


BE recorded (Phegea, 2010).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2010).

LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010).

distribution within Europe

All Europe (Fauna Europaea, 2010).



See Adamski ao, Patočka, Patočka & Turčáno.


Teleia dodecella.

parasitoids, predators

Capellia orneus.


Especially numerous in industrial regions (Schnaider, 1991a).


Adamski, Landry, Passoa & Tracy (2010a), Baldizzone (2004a), Baldizzone & Scalercio (2018a), Bland, Corley, Emmet ao (2002a), Buhr (1935b), Corley, Maravalhas & Passos de Carvalho (2006a), Elsner, Huemer & Tokár (1999a), Freeman (1960a), Gómez de Aizpurúa (1994a), Hering (1957a), Huemer (2012a), Kaitila (1996a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Lemarie (1959a), Modlinger & Liška (2016a), Patočka (1997a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), De Prins (1998a), Requena (2009a), Robbins (1991a), Schnaider (1991a), Skala (1950a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Szőcs (1977a), Zoerner (1969a).

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