Coleotechnites piceaella (Kearfott, 1903)

spruce groundling

mine

A group of four to six leaves are completely mined out from the base on. The leaves have a hole near their base; these entrances may be connected by a silken tube. Between the leaves a loose spinning. All frass is ejected. Mines preferably occur when a tree has been weakened by weather conditions or insect pest damage.

hostplants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Picea omorika, pungens.

phenology

Larvae from September till end-May (Bland ao, 2002a; McLeod, 1966a).

BENELUX

No records from the Benelux yet (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

North American species that appeared in Britain in 1952, in Germany in 1963, and has expanded from there over all central Europe, towards France, Italy, and Hungary (Führer, 1963a; Mey & Schnee, 1992a; Csóka, 2003a).

larva

Orange brown, straw coloured to brick red with light brown head; much darker during the winter rest. Pronotum darker, with lighter anterior border (Bland ao, 2002a; Freeman, 1967a; McLeod, 1962a, 1966a; Mey & Schnee, 1992a). The larva of a related species, C. milleri (Busck), is illustrated by Stehr (1987a)

pupa

Described by Patočka & Turčáni (2005a).

synonyms

Eucordylea, Pulicalvaria, Recurvaria piceaella.

notes

Freeman writes that the larvae mine the leaves of the previous year, but Bland ao emphatically mention leaves of the current year. Führer writes that before winter only a single leaf is mined out.

references

Bland ao (2002a), Csóka (2003a), Elsner, Huemer & Tokár (1999a), Freeman (1967a), Führer (1963a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), McLeod (1962a, 1966a), Mey & Schnee (1992a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a).

mod 11.ix.2018