A small Lepidoptera family. Mostly the larvae live in a spinning or silken tube, into wich the retreat during feeding pauses or when threatened; generally they are single, some species live comunal. In a few species the larvae start their life as miners, to turn to a freeliving existence later. The species of northern Europe are treated by Bengtsson (1984a), the British species by Bengtsson (2002a).
Bengtsson (1984a, 2002a), Fauna Europaea (2014).