Bucculatrix demaryella (Duponchel, 1840)
on Betula, etc.
Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Genk, de Maten, 24.ix.2016 © Carina Van Steenwinkel: vacated mine
Betula pendula, België, prov. Flemish Brabant, Diest, wallen, 30.viii.2016 © Carina Van Steenwinkel: vacated mine
Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Mol, 28.ix.2014 © Carina Van Steenwinkel: freely living larva
Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Beringen, Mijn Teril, 9.x.2016 © Carina Van Steenwinkel: vacated mine and feeding traces of the free-living larva
Betula pubescens, Duin en Kruidberg, 13.ix.2001
The mine begins at an oval, lower-surface egg. Here begins a short, full depth corridor, often along the midrib or a thick vein. Most of the mine with a thick frass line. The larva soon leaves the mine, and starts causing window-feeding, later earing holes in the leaf. The larval chamber (the space occupied by the larva, while in the mine, obviously free of frass) is more than three times as long as wide. Pupation in a slender, greyish brown cocoon with c. 10 sharp length ridges.
In the Benelux mainly (exclusively?) on Birch. Patočka (1996a) and Biesenbaum (2010a) additionally mention Acer and Aesculus hippocastanum, but this may refer to cases of xenophagy.
Bivoltine; hibernation as pupa.
BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).
NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).
LUX recorded (Ellis: Dudelange).
distribution within Europe
Europe, except the Iberian Peninsula, parts pf the Balkan Peninsula, and the Mediterranean Islands (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
The mining larva is pale yellow with a darker head (the free living larva is grey green).
Described byPatočka (1996a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a).
Young mines of the common Rhamphus pulicarius may deceivingly resemble demaryella mines, especially when they are situated in a vein axil, as often is the case. Rhamphus mines never have an exit hole, because the larva remains in the mine. Below a few pictures of the look-alike:
Rhamphus pulicarius on Betula pendula, Rheden: mine lighted from above and from behind
Same mine, detail: a Rhamphus mine invariably contains a larva.
Ahr (1966a), Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Biesenbaum (2010a), Buhr (1964a), Burmann (1991a), Buszko (1987a, 1992b), Emmet (1985a), Gielis, Huisman, Kuchlein ao (1985a), Hering (1934b, 1957a), Huemer (1986b, 2012a), Huisman & Koster (1997a, 1999a), Huisman, Koster, Muus & van Nieukerken (2013a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ellis (2007a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2005a), Klimesch (1937b, 1950c, 1956a), Klimesch & Skala (1936b), Kozlov, van Nieukerken, Zverev & Zvereva (2013a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein &a de Vos (1999a), Kurz & Embacher (2012a), Maček (1999a), Nowakowski (1954a), Patočka (1996a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Paulavičiūtė (2020a), Pinzari, Pinzari & Zilli (2013a), Robbins (1991a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Svensson (1971a), Szőcs (1977a), Tomov & Krusteva (2007a), Viramo (1962a), Zoerner (1969a, 1970a).