Caloptilia cuculipennella (Hübner, 1796)
Fraxinus excelsior, Retranchement © Anna Almekinders
Fraxinus excelsior, Belgium, Antoing © Chris Snyers
Ligustrum ovalifolium, Belgium, Zemst © Jorgen Ravoet
Fraxinus excelsior, Spain, Asturias, Gijon © Jean-Yves Baugnée
Fraxinus excelsior, Drachten © Gerrit Tuinstra: seven rolls in two leaves
Fraxinus excelsior, France, dép. Haute-Garonne, Avignonet-Lauragais © Catherine Reymonet
several mines in a leaf
two larvae in their mine (later leaf rolls have been observed, but were not photograped)
Larva solitary in an elongate upper-surface epidermal (thence silvery) mine. Frass initially in a rust-coloured central line. Later, when the mine starts to contract and the leaf folds over the mine, the frass is black and concentrated in a corner of the mine. At this point the larva leaves the mine, and starts living freely in a downwards rolled leaflet. In each case in Privet this has the shape of a conical pepperbox with an acute tip, and with the broad base spun to the leaf.
Fraxinus americana, angustifolia & subsp. oxycarpa, anomala, excelsior, latifolia, nigra, ornus, pennsylvanica, quadrangulata, sogdiana; Jasminum; Ligustrum ovalifolium, vulgare; Phillyrea; Syringa vulgaris.
Although the literature tells that larvae are found between July and September (Hering, 1957a; Emmet, Watkinson & Wilson, 1985a), last authors write that the adult hibernates, and flies until May. The agrees well with an observation by Jorgen Ravoet, who found larvae on May 6th (2009, Belgium; picture above). In southern England the species seems double-brooded (Young, 2013a).
BE rare and declining (De Prins, 1998a), but perhaps the situation is reversing.
NE only a few very old records, but in 2007 mines have been found by Ben van As.
LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).
distribution within Europe
Entire Europe, except the Iberian Peninsula and Greece (Fauna Europaea, 2008).
Prior to pupation the larva bites a circular exit hole in the pepperbox. The pupa is situated in a white cocoon in a hammock that is set between this exit hole and a point deep in the pepperbox (pictures in Parenti & Varalda, 2000a). The pupa is described by Patočka & Zach (1995a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a).
Baldizzone (2004a), Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Biesenbaum (2010a), SCS Brown (1947a), Buhr (1935b), Buszko (1992c), Corley, Marabuto & Pires (2007a), Corley, Rosete, Gonçalves ao (2016a), Drăghia (1970a), Emmet, Watkinson & Wilson (1985a), Hering (1957a), Huber (1969a), Klimesch (1950c), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kuchlein & Donner (1973a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), A & Z Laštůvka (2011a, 2014a), Lhomme (1934c), Opheim (1977a), Parenti (2001a), Parenti & Varalda (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Patočka & Zach (1995a), De Prins (2010a), De Prins & Steeman (2011a), Robbins (1991a), Skala (1951a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Triberti & Braggio (2011a), Young (2013a).