Caloptilia populetorum (Zeller, 1839)
Betula pendula, forestry Gieten, early leaf roll © Kees Boele
final leaf roll
Betula pendula, Belgium, Liège, Terril Batterie Nouveau: cocoon (identification uncertain, betulicola is possible as well) © Jean-Yves Baugnée
At first the mine is epidermal and rather large, sometimes even occupying the entire length of the leaf. At a later stage the larva begins to consume the tissue below the epidermis, and the mine becomes a tentiform one; the leaf is strongly contracted by then. The epidermis is brown. The mine may be lower-surface or upper-surface. After the mine has been vacated the larva moves twice. At first it lives in a rolled, sometimes just folded, leaf margin, next in a leaf that has been rolled lengthwise. Pupation in a acocoon at the underside of a leaf.
Betula pendula, pubescens.
Clear preference for B. pendula, contrary to C. betulicola, which is indifferent (Buszko. 1992c).
Larvae in July – August, pupae in end-July – September (Emmet ao, 1985a).
BE recorded (Steeman & De Prins, 2005a).
NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).
LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
distribution within Europe
Europe, except Italy, the Balkan Peninsula and the Mediterranean Islands (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
Whitish, head light brown; pronotum without black markings (Brown, 1947a).
Described by Patočka & Zach (1995a) and Patočka & Turčáni (2005). Cocoon whitish, under a downfolded leaf margin, of of the leaf roll itself.
The unfortunate species name has caused quite some confusion. The species is included in a key to the Poplar miners by Hering (1927a) and accused of damage to Aspen and Willow by Delplanque (1998a).
Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Biesenbaum (2010a), SCS Brown (1947a), Buhr (1935a, 1936a, 1964a), Burmann (1943a), Buszko (1992b,c), Buszko & Beshkov (2004a), Delplanque (1998a), Deutschmann (2008a), Emmet, Watkinson & Wilson (1985a), Hering (1923a, 1957a), Huisman & Koster (1994a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2005a), Jaworski (2009a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kuchlein ao (1988a), Leutsch (2011a), Opheim (1977a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Patočka & Zach (1995a), De Prins (2010a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a), Steeman & De Prins (2005a), Szőcs (1977a).