Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Parornix betulae

Parornix betulae (Stainton, 1854)

brown birch slender

Parornix betulae mines

Betula pendula, België, prov. Namur, Doische, Fond; unusual concentration of mines © Steve Wullaert

Parornix betulae opened mine

opened mine

Parornix betulae mine

Betula pubescens, Borne; two mines and a folded leaf margin

Parornix betulae mine

vacated mine

Parornix betulae mine

Betula pubescens, Posbank, underside


The mine begins as an inconspicuous lower surface corridor, mainly recognisable by its brown line of frass. In the next larval stage a lower-surface blotch is made, that soon develops into a tentiform mine; its epidermis turns brown. Frass in a clump in a corner of the mine. After leaving the mine the larva continues feeding in a downwards folded leaf margin, that is fixed with silk.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula alleghaniensis, grossa, humilis, obscura, papyrifera, pendula, pubescens, nana, utilis.


bivoltine, larvae in June and September – October; hibernation as pupa (Emmet ao).


BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2009).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

All Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula, and the Mediterranean Islands (Corley ao, 2006a; Fauna Europaea, 2009).



Described by Patočka & Turčáni (2005a).


Ornix betulae; O. scutellatella Stainton, 1854.


Ahr (1966a), Bachmaier (1965a), Baldizzone (2004a), Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Biesenbaum (2010a), Buhr (1935a, 1964a), Buszko (1992b), Buszko & Beshkov (2004a), Corley, Maravalhas & Passos de Carvalho (2006a), Csóka (2003a), Deschka & Wimmer (2000a), Deutschmann (2008a), Emmet, Watkinson & Wilson (1985a), Haase (1942a), Hartig (1939a), Heckford (1986a), Hering (1927b, 1957a), Huber (1969a), Huemer & Wiesner (1997a), Jaworski (2009a), Klimesch (1950c, 1989a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Landry ao (2013a), A & Z Laštůvka (2014a), Leutsch (2011a), Maček (1999a), Nowakowski (1954a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pinzari, Pinzari & Zilli (2013a), De Prins (1998a), De Prins & Steeman (2011a), Robbins (1991a), Roques, Cleary, Matsiakh & Eschem (2017a), Schütze (1931a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Stammer (2016a), Szőcs (1977a 1981a), Viramo (1962a), Zoerner (1969a).

Last modified 18.xii.2019