Parornix betulae (Stainton, 1854)

brown birch slender

Parornix betulae mines

Betula pendula, België, prov. Namur, Doische, Fond; unusual concentration of mines; © Steve Wullaert

Parornix betulae opened mine

opened mine

Parornix betulae mine

Betula pubescens, Borne; two mines and a folded leaf margin

Parornix betulae mine

vacated mine

Parornix betulae mine

Betula pubescens, Posbank, underside

mine

The mine begins as an inconspicuous lower surface corridor, mainly recognisable by its brown line of frass. In the next larval stage a lower-surface blotch is made, that soon develops into a tentiform mine; its epidermis turns brown. Frass in a clump in a corner of the mine. After leaving the mine the larva continues feeding in a downwards folded leaf margin, that is fixed with silk.

hostplants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula alleghaniensis, grossa, humilis, obscura, papyrifera, pendula, pubescens, nana, utilis.

phenology

bivoltine, larvae in June and September – October; hibernation as pupa (Emmet ao).

BENELUX

BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

All Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula, and the Mediterranean Islands (Corley ao, 2006a; Fauna Europaea, 2009).

larva

pupa

Described by Patočka & Turčáni (2005a).

synonyms

Ornix betulae; O. scutellatella Stainton, 1854.

references

Ahr (1966a), Bachmaier (1965a), Baldizzone (2004a), Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Biesenbaum (2010a), Buhr (1935a, 1964a), Buszko (1992b), Buszko & Beshkov (2004a), Corley, Maravalhas & Passos de Carvalho (2006a), Csóka (2003a), Deschka & Wimmer (2000a), Deutschmann (2008a), Emmet, Watkinson & Wilson (1985a), Haase (1942a), Hartig (1939a), Heckford (1986a), Hering (1927b, 1957a), Huber (1969a), Huemer & Wiesner (1997a), Jaworski (2009a), Klimesch (1950c), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Landry ao (2013a), A & Z Laštůvka (2014a), Leutsch (2011a), Maček (1999a), Nowakowski (1954a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pinzari, Pinzari & Zilli (2013a), De Prins (1998a), De Prins & Steeman (2011a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Stammer (2016a), Szőcs (1977a 1981a), Viramo (1962a), Zoerner (1969a).

mod 16.ii.2018