Parornix torquillella (Zeller, 1850)
Prunus spinosa, Belgium, prov. Namur, Éprave © Jean-Yves Baugnée
Prunus spinosa, België, prov. Namen, Couvin, Frasnes © Stéphane Claerebout
Prunus spinosa, Belgium, prov. Namur, Parc National de Furfooz © Stéphane Claerebout
The mine begins as a lower-surface epidermal gallery that widens into a blotch. Finally it becomes a small, only weakly inflated tentiform mine, quadrangular, or triangular when it lies in a vein axil. The lower epidermis is whitish, unfolded, and rather transparent. The leaf tissue is eaten op to the upper epidermis. Frass packed in a corner of the mine. The older larva leaves the mine, then lives free under a leaf tip or margin that has been folded downwards, or in a leaf that is rolled into a pod.
Prunus cerasus, domestica & subsp. insititia, maritima, spinosa.
P. spinosa is the main host.
(Emmet ao, 1985a) mention the larvae from late July till September. The flight graphs of adult moths in the website microlepidoptera.nl show both for P. torquillella and P. finitimella two peaks in May and August. One may expect therefore to find torquillella well before late July.
BE recorded (Phegea, 2010).
NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2010).
LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010).
distribution within Europe
Almost all Europe, missing in Spain and parts of the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2010).
Yellowish white/green; head light brown. Contrary to P. finitimella, living on the same host plant, the legs are not black, but yellowish green to pale brown (Emmet, 1982a; Emmet, Watkinson & Wilson, 1985a). They also state that there is a difference in the number of spots on the rear margin of the head (two, rather than four), but that seems to be variable.
Described by Patočka & Turčáni (2005a).
Baldizzone (2004a), Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Biesenbaum (2010a), Buhr (1936a, 1964a), Buszko (1992b), Buszko & Beshkov (2004a), Deutschmann (2008a), Emmet (1982a), Emmet, Watkinson & Wilson (1985a), van Frankenhuyzen & Houtman (1972a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Hartig (1939a), Hering (1932g, 1957a), Huemer (1988a), Jaworski (2009a), Kasy (1983a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2015a), Leutsch (2011a), Maček (1999a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Plóciennik, Pawlikiewicz & Jaworski (2011a), De Prins & Steeman (2011a), Robbins (1991a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Szőcs (1977a, 1981a).