Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phyllonorycter blancardella

Phyllonorycter blancardella (Fabricius, 1761)

brown apple midget

Phyllonorycter blancardella: mine on Malus sylvestris

Malus sylvestris, België, prov. Namen, Viroinval, Nismes, RN Montagne-aux-Buis © Stéphane Claerebout

Phyllonorycter blancardella: mine on Malus sylvestris

same leaf, underside

Phyllonorycter blancardella: exuvium

the identification has been confirmed by breeding.

Phyllonorycter blancardella minePhyllonorycter blancardella mine

Malus domestica, Zweeloo, Pietersberg

Malus domestica Pietersberg, opened mine


Lower surface tentiform mine with a yellow-green epidermis that has a few folds. Pupation within the mine. The pupa is amber or chestnut brown, and lies in a white cocoon. Generally the frass is accumulated in a corner of the mine (like in the lower picture), but sometimes a small quantity is incorporated in the wall of the cocoon.

host plants

Rosaceae, monophagous

Malus astracanica, baccata, coronaria, domestica, floribunda, fusca, ringo, x robusta, sylvestris.

Records in literature from other plant genera, such as (Amelanchier Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Mespilus germanica; Prunus; Pyrus; Sorbus aucuparia, coronaria) are either dubious or concern exceptional observations (Triberti, 2007a).


Two generations; in Britain larvae are found in May – June and September – October Emmet, Watkinson & Wilson,1985a).


BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2009).

LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

Entire Europe, till the Ukraine and central Anatolia (Triberti, 2007a).



Lithocolletis blancardella; Phyllonorycter concomitella (Bankes, 1899).


An extensive monograph about the morphology and biology of this species has been published by Pottinger & LeRoux (1971a.

A fruit crop pest (Baggiolini, 1960a). Introduced in North America, where too it has become a pest.


Anagnou–Veroniki, Papaioannou–Souliotis, Karanstasi & Giannopolitis (2008a), Baggiolini (1960a), Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Body, Burlat & Giron (2015a), Body, Kaiser, Dubreuil ao (2013a), Bouček (1959a), Braggion (2013a), Briolini (1961a), Buhr (1935b, 1964a), Buszko (1992b), Deutsch (2012a), Deutschmann (2008a), Drăghia (1970a), Emmet, Watkinson & Wilson (1985a), van Frankenhuyzen & Houtman (1972a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Gregor & Patočka (2001a), Haase (1942a), Hartig (1939a), Hellers (2017a), Hering (1921a, 1957a, 1961a), Huber (1969a), Huemer (1988a), Huemer & Erlebach (2003a), Jaworski (2009a), Kirichenko, Augustin & Kenis (2018a), Klimesch (1950c), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kvičala (1938a), A & Z Laštůvka (2011a, 2014a), Leutsch (2011a), Maček (1999a), Matošević, Pernek, Dubravac & Barić (2009a), Nel & Varenne (2014a), Nowakowski (1954a), Olivella (2002a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pinzari, Pinzari & Zilli (2013a), Plóciennik, Pawlikiewicz & Jaworski (2011a), Pottinger & LeRoux (1971a), Robbins (1991a), Schmid (2019a), Schütze (1931a), Sefrová (2005a), Skala (1941a, 1951a), Starý (1930a). Sønderup (1949a), Šumpich (2017a), Szőcs (1977a, 1978a, 1981a), Tourlan (1980a), Triberti (2007a), Zoerner (1969a, 1970a).

Last modified 22.ii.2023