Phyllonorycter cavella (Zeller, 1846)

gold birch midget

on Betula

Phyllonorycter cavella: mine on Betula

Betula, Denmark © Mathias Holm

Phyllonorycter cavella: larva

larva

Phyllonorycter cavella: mine on Betula

Betula, Bergen NH © John van Roosmalen

Phyllonorycter cavella: mine on Betula

underside of the mine

Phyllonorycter cavella: larva

larva

Phyllonorycter cavella: mine on Betula

Betula, Belgium, prov. Namur, Viroinval, Nismes, RN Montagne-aux-Buis © Steve Wullaert

Phyllonorycter cavella: larva

larva

mine

Relatively large, lower-surface tentiform mine; epidermis rather strongly folded. As the picture above show, the living larva is strikingly uniformly yellow to brownish yellow; this may well be a specific character. Pupa in the mine, in a white cocoon.

hostplants

Betulaceae, monophagous (?)

Betula pendula, pubescens.

Rarely seen also on Prunus cerasus; see below.

phenology

Larvae from August till end-October; hibernation as pupa (Emmet ao, 1985a).

BENELUX

BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

Europe, except Ireland, the Iberian and Balkan Peninsula, and the Mediterranean Islands (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

pupa

Cremaster exceptionally long and (seen from the side) flat (Gregor & Patočka, 2001a).

synonyms

Lithocolletis cavella.

A specimen bred from Prunus cerasus has been described as a separate subspecies, Lithoclletis cavella milleri Povolný & Gregor 1950.

references

Bachmaier (1965a), Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Buhr (1964a), Buszko (1992b), Emmet, Watkinson & Wilson (1985a), Gregor & Patočka (2001a), Hering (1957a), Jaworski (2009a), Klimesch (1950c), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kuchlein ao (1988a), Langohr & Schreurs (1987a), Maček (1999a), Nel & Varenne (2014a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Povolný & Gregor (1950a), De Prins (1998a), Robbins (1991a), van Roosmalen, Wijker & Knijnsberg (2013a), Schütze (1931a), Starý (1930a), Szőcs (1977a), Zoerner (1969a).

mod 17.ii.2018