Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phyllonorycter connexella

Phyllonorycter connexella (Zeller, 1846)

on Populus, Salix

Phyllonorycter connexella: mine on Populus x canadensis

Populus x canadensis, Nieuw-Buinen, Buinerveense Bos, 12.x.2020 © Ben van As (together with Ph. populifoliella)

Phyllonorycter connexella mines on Populus x canadensis

Populus x canadensis, Lauwersmeer (Gr.), 10.x.2917 © Gerrit Tuinstra

Phyllonorycter connexella mine on Populus x canadensis

mine, upperside

Phyllonorycter connexella mine on Populus x canadensis


Phyllonorycter connexella mine on Populus x canadensis

mine, lighted from behind

Phyllonorycter connexella: opened cocoon in the mine

Populus x canadensis, Lauwersoog, 3.ix.2018 © Gerrit Tuinstra: opened cocoon in the mine

Phyllonorycter connexella: cremaster

cremaster in dorsal and lateral view (from Gregor & Patočka)


Lower-surface tentiform mine, usually between two side veins. One strong length fold. Pupa in a cocoon. Frass incorporated in the sides of the cocoon, giving the impression of two dark lines when the leaf is held against the light.

host plants

Salicaceae, oligophagous

Populus alba, x canadensis, nigra, nigra cv. “Italica”; Salix alba, x fragilis, pentandra, purpurea.


Larvae in June and October (Hering, 1957a).


BE not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2010).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010).

distribution within Europe

From Fennoscandia to the Pyrenees and Italy, and from France to Central Russia and the Ukraine (Fauna Europaea, 2010).


Yellowish to dark brown. The cremaster is shorter than wide, and puckered over its entire surface. Two pairs of spines. The outer, rather small, pair is curved outwards. The inner pair is very small, and curved upwards (Gregor & Patočka, 2001a; Patočka & Turčáni, 2005a).


Lithocolletis connexella.

parasitoids, predators

Zagrammosoma talitzkii.references

Arru (1996a), Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Buhr (1935b, 1937a), Buszko (1992b), Davis & Deschka (2001a), Delplanque (1998a), Deutsch (2012a), Deutschmann (2008a), Gregor & Patočka (2001a), Hering (1923a, 1957a), Huber (1969a), Huisman & Koster (1998a, 1999a), Huisman, Koster, Muus & van Nieukerken (2013a), Jaworski (2009a), Kasy (1965a), Klimesch (1950c), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Langohr (1984a), Nel & Varenne (2014a), van Nieukerken, Gielis, Huisman ao (1993a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1995a), Schütze (1931a), Sønderup (1949a), Szőcs (1977a, 1978a, 1981a).

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