Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phyllonorycter hilarella

Phyllonorycter hilarella (Zetterstedt, 1839)

sallow midget


Rather large, lower-surface tentiform mine, mostly between two side veins. The upper side is fairly strongly inflated. The underside has many narrow folds, not easily seen because of the indumentum at the underside of the leaf.Pupa light brown in a tough, golden cocoon. Frass packed in a corner of the mine. Neither mine, cocoon nor pupa can be distinguished from those of Ph. dubitella (Gregor & Patočka, 2001a).

host plants

Salicaceae, monophagous

Salix aurita, caprea, cinerea.

Primarily on S. caprea. Hartig (1939a) adds S. appendiculata, Deutsch Salix glabra. Svensson (1966a) bred the species several times from Populus tremula.


Larvae in July and September – early November (Emmet ao, 1985a).


BE recorded (Phegea, 2010).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2010).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010).

distribution within Europe

All Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula and the Mediterranean Islands (Fauna Europaea, 2010).



Lithocolletis hilarella; Lithocolletis, Phyllonorycter spinolella (Duponchel, 1840); Lithocolletis groenlieni Hering, 1926.

parasitoids, predators

Achrysocharoides zwoelferi; Cirrospilus pictus; Pnigalio longulus, pectinicornis; Sympiesis gordius, sericeicornis.


Baldizzone (2004a, 2008a), Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Bouček (1959a), Buhr (1937a, 1964a), Davis & Deschka (2001a), Deutsch (2012a), Deutschmann (2008a), Emmet, Watkinson & Wilson (1985a), Gregor & Patočka (2001a), Hartig (1939a), Hering (1926b, 1957a), Huber (1969a), Huemer (1986b, 2012a), Klimesch (1950c), Kozlov & Kullberg (2006a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kvičala (1938a), Nel & Varenne (2014a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), De Prins (1998a), Robbins (1991a), Schmid (2019a), Schütze (1931a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Svensson (1966a), Szőcs (1977a, 1978a, 1981a).

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