Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phyllonorycter issikii

Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata, 1963)

Phyllonorycter issikii: mine on Tilia cordata

Tilia cordata, Belgium, prov. Limburg, Zutendaal, de Lieteberg © Chris Snyers

Phyllonorycter issikii: mine on Tilia cordata

underside of the same mine

Phyllonorycter issikii: mine on Tilia cordata

another, somewhat more slender mine

Phyllonorycter issikii: mine on Tilia cordata


Phyllonorycter issikii: mine on Tilia cordata

frass lump, and pupa in its flimsy cocoon

Phyllonorycter issikii mass occurrence on Tilia cordata

Tilia cordata, Polen, Bialowieza © Sébastien Carbonnelle: mass occurrence


Lower-surface, little contracted tentiform mine. Often several mines in a leaf. Frass concentrated in a corner of the mine, from above recognisable as a black patch.

host plants

Malvaceae, oligophagous

Tilia americana, cordata, platyphyllos.


BE First discovery in 2011 (Wullaert, 2012a).

NE First record in the Netherlands in September 2009 by Arnold Schreurs and Martien van Stiphout (, 2009).

LUX Not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

Eastern Europe (Fauna Europaea, 2009).


Partly yellow, partly white.


Cremaster with one pair of spines; they are rather slender and curved outwards (Gregor & Patočka, 2001a; Patočka & Turčáni, 2005a).

parasitoids, predators

Achrysocharoides cilla; Aprostocetus zoilus; Chrysocharis laomedon; Cirrospilus lyncus, viticola; Minotetrastichus frontalis; Pnigalio agraules; Sympiesis angustipennis, gordius, sericeicornis.


Species originating from Japan, Korea and Asiatic Russia, that probably was introduced in eastern Europe around 1970, and now is omnipresent in Czechia and Slovakia (Sefrová, 2002a). The species is expanding fast in Hungary and Germany, and has also been found in the Baltic States (Csóka, 2003a; Noreika, 1998a; Reinhardt & Rennwald, 2007a). First record in the Benelux was in 2009.

The infestation has a significant, negative, effect on, among other things, wood production and sugar content of the nectar (Ermolaev & Zorin, 2011a).

Preference for shadow leaves of the lower branches close to the stem (Ermolaev & Zorin, 2011b).


Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Csóka (2003a), Deutsch (2012a), Deutschmann (2008a), Doorenweerd, van As & Scheffers (2014a), Ermolaev & Motoshkova (2008a), Ermolaev & Sidorova (2012a), Ermolaev & Zorin (2011a,b), Flügel (2011a), Gregor & Patočka (2001a), Huemer (2007a, 2012a), Huemer & Erlebach (2003a), Huisman, Koster, Muus & van Nieukerken (2013a), Jaworski (2009a), Kirichenko, Augustin & Kenis (2018a), Kirichenko, Triberti, Akulov ao (2019a), Kolbeck, Lichtmannecker & Pröse (2005a), Kollár (2007a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kovács, Kovács & Szabóky (2006a), Leutsch (2011a), Matošević, Pernek, Dubravac & Barić (2009a), Noreika (1998a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Plóciennik, Pawlikiewicz & Jaworski (2011a), Reinhardt & Rennwald (2007a), Roweck & Savenkov (2010a), Sefrová (2002a, 2005a), Sefrová, Laštuvka & Petru (2000a), Segerer (2008a), Stammer (2016a), Steeman & Sierens (2018a, 2019a), Stolnicu (2007a), Tomov & Krusteva (2007a), Ureche (2006a, 2010a), Wimmer (2004a), Wullaert (2012a), Yefremova & Kravchenko (2015a).

Last modified 3.vii.2022