Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata, 1963)
Tilia cordata, Belgium, prov. Limburg, Zutendaal, de Lieteberg © Chris Snyers
underside of the same mine
another, somewhat more slender mine
frass lump, and pupa in its flimsy cocoon
Tilia cordata, Polen, Bialowieza © Sébastien Carbonnelle: mass occurrence
Lower-surface, little contracted tentiform mine. Often several mines in a leaf. Frass concentrated in a corner of the mine, from above recognisable as a black patch.
Tilia americana, cordata, platyphyllos.
BE First discovery in 2011 (Wullaert, 2012a).
NE First record in the Netherlands in September 2009 by Arnold Schreurs and Martien van Stiphout (Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).
LUX Not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
distribution within Europe
Eastern Europe (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
Partly yellow, partly white.
Cremaster with one pair of spines; they are rather slender and curved outwards (Gregor & Patočka, 2001a; Patočka & Turčáni, 2005a).
Species originating from Japan, Korea and Asiatic Russia, that probably was introduced in eastern Europe around 1970, and now is omnipresent in Czechia and Slovakia (Sefrová, 2002a). The species is expanding fast in Hungary and Germany, and has also been found in the Baltic States (Csóka, 2003a; Noreika, 1998a; Reinhardt & Rennwald, 2007a). First record in the Benelux was in 2009.
The infestation has a significant, negative, effect on, among other things, wood production and sugar content of the nectar (Ermolaev & Zorin, 2011a).
Preference for shadow leaves of the lower branches close to the stem (Ermolaev & Zorin, 2011b).
Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Csóka (2003a), Deutschmann (2008a), Doorenweerd, van As & Scheffers (2014a), Ermolaev & Motoshkova (2008a), Ermolaev & Sidorova (2012a), Ermolaev & Zorin (2011a,b), Flügel (2011a), Gregor & Patočka (2001a), Huemer (2012a), Huemer & Erlebach (2003a), Huisman, Koster, Muus & van Nieukerken (2013a), Jaworski (2009a), Kirichenko, Augustin & Kenis (2018a), Kirichenko, Triberti, Akulov ao (2019a), Kolbeck, Lichtmannecker & Pröse (2005a), Kollár (2007a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kovács, Kovács & Szabóky (2006a), Leutsch (2011a), Matošević, Pernek, Dubravac & Barić (2009a), Noreika (1998a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Plóciennik, Pawlikiewicz & Jaworski (2011a), Reinhardt & Rennwald (2007a), Sefrová (2002a, 2005a), Sefrová, Laštuvka & Petru (2000a), Segerer (2008a), Stammer (2016a), Stolnicu (2007a), Tomov & Krusteva (2007a), Ureche (2006a, 2010a), Wimmer (2004a), Wullaert (2012a), Yefremova & Kravchenko (2015a).