Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phyllonorycter rajella

Phyllonorycter rajella (Linnaeus, 1758)

common alder midget

Phyllonorycter rajella mine

Alnus glutinosa, Nieuwendam

Phyllonorycter rajella mine

same mine, lighted from behind


Lower-surface tentiform mine, not longer than 20 mm, usually in the axil of a thick lateral vein, with 1 strong length fold. Pupa in a tough off-white cocoon that is fastened to the floor and the roof of the mine. (Almost) all frass is incorporated in the sides of the cocoon (visible with a loupe in backlight as two dark lines). In autumn not infrequently five or more mines in one leaf.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Alnus cordata, glutinosa, incana, rubra, viridis.


Two generations per year; larvae in June and July (van Frankenhuyzen & Freriks, 1976a).


BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2009).

LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

Entire Europe, with exception of the Iberian Peninsula and Greece (Fauna Europaea, 2009).


Pale green.



Lithocolletis rajella; Phyllonorycter alnifoliella (Hübner, 1796); Ph. alniella (Zeller, 1946a).

parasitoids, predators

Pnigalio longulus; Sympiesis gordius, sericeicornis.


Ahr (1966a), Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Bouček (1959a), Buhr (1935a, 1964a), Buszko (1992b), Buszko & Beshkov (2004a), Deutschmann (2008a), van Frankenhuyzen & Freriks (1976a), van Frankenhuyzen & Houtman (1972a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Gregor & Patočka (2001a), Gregor & Povolný (1950a), Haase (1942a), Hering (1932a, 1947a, 1957a, 1962a), Huber (1969a), Jaworski (2009a), Klimesch (1950c), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), A & Z Laštůvka (2011a), Lhomme (1934b), Maček (1999a), Matošević, Pernek, Dubravac & Barić (2009a), Michalska (1976a), Nel & Varenne (2014a), Nowakowski (1954a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), De Prins & Steeman (2011a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a), Skala (1951a), Sønderup (1949a), Stammer (2016a), Starý (1930a), Szőcs (1977a), Tourlan (1980a), Triberti & Braggio (2011a), van Wielink (2020a), Yefremova & Kravchenko (2015a), Zoerner (1969a, 1970a).

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