Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phyllonorycter ulmifoliella

Phyllonorycter ulmifoliella (Hübner, 1817)

red birch midget

on Betula

Phyllonorycter ulmifoliella on Betula pendula

Betula pendula, Hungary, Kimle, © László Érsek

Phyllonorycter ulmifoliella on Betula pendula

fresh mine, underside

Phyllonorycter ulmifoliella on Betula pendula

opened mine with larva and frass mass

Phyllonorycter ulmifoliella on Betula pendula

larva, head and thorax dorsal …

Phyllonorycter ulmifoliella on Betula pendula

… ventral

Phyllonorycter ulmifoliella mine

Betula pubescens, Duin en Kruidberg

Betula pendula, Tilburg; opened mine of the summer generation: the cocoon is a flimsy spinning.

Phyllonorycter ulmifoliella mine

Betula pubescens, Hoenderloo, Hoge Veluwe: mine of the autumn generation

Betula pendula, Loonsche en Drunensche Duinen; opened mine of the autumn generation; the cocoon is so tough that opening it, with two pairs of tweezers, requires some force.


Small lower surface tentiform mine; the lower epidermis is greenish yellow and weakly folded. Pupation within the mine in a cocoon that in the summer generation is so flimsy that sometimes it seems to be missing, while in the autumn generation it is quite tough. All frass in a corner of the mine.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula x alpestris, grossa, pendula, pubescens.

Reported by Hering (1957a) as an occasional miner of Ribes. The statement by Kollár (2007a) and Kollár & Hrubík (2009a) that the species were a pest on op Ulmus glabra and laevis must be due to a mistake.


Larvae in July and September – November; hibernation as pupa (Emmet ao, 1985a).


BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2009).

LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

Entire Europe, with exception of the Balkan Peninsula (Corley ao, 2006a; Fauna Europaea, 2009).


Whitish, with an orange-yellow spot dorsally on the sixth abdominal segment. See Grandi (1931a, 1933a) for a description of the morphology.



Lithocolletis ulmifoliella.

parasitoids, predators

Achrysocharoides niveipes; Cirrospilus pictus; Pnigalio pectinicornis; Sympiesis gordius, sericeicornis.


Ahr (1966a), Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Bouček (1959a), Buhr (1935a, 1964a), Buszko (1992b), Buszko & Beshkov (2004a), Corley, Maravalhas & Passos de Carvalho (2006a), Corley, Rosete, Marabuto ao (2014a), Deschka (1968a), Deutsch (2012a), Deutschmann (2008a), Emmet, Watkinson & Wilson,1985a), van Frankenhuyzen & Houtman (1972a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Grandi (1931a, 1933a), Gregor & Patočka (2001a), Haase (1942a), Hering (1927b, 1957a), Huber (1969a), Huemer (2012a), Huemer & Erlebach (2003a), Jaworski (2009a), Kirichenko, Triberti, Akulov ao (2019a), Klimesch (1950c), Kollár (2007a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kuznetzov & Baryshnikova (2006a), Maček (1999a), Matošević, Pernek, Dubravac & Barić (2009a), Nel & Varenne (2014a), Nowakowski (1954a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Robbins (1991a), Schmid (2019a), Schütze (1931a), Sefrová (2005a), Skala (1951a), Sønderup (1949a), Starý (1930a), Szőcs (1977a, 1981a), Wegner (2013a), Yefremova & Kravchenko (2015a), Zoerner (1969a, 1970a).

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