Lyonetia prunifoliella (Hübner, 1796)
Prunus spinosa, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Resteigne, Pairées © Jean-Yves Baugnée
Prunus spinosa, IJzevoorde
another mine from the same plant
Prunus spinosa, Belgium, prov. Namur, Chimay (Momignies): occupied mines © Stéphane Claerebout
Malus sylvestris, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Resteigne, Pairées © Jean-Yves Baugnée
Two cocoons, attached to silken strands at the underside of a leaf, in a manner characteristic for the genus Lyonetia.
Eggs are deposited in (not: on) the underside of a leaf, well away from the margin, often several per leaf. Around the oviposition site a cavity develops, that in the end often leaves a hole in the leaf. Then a narrow, hardly widening, winding corridor, largely filled with a broad reddish brown frass line. The corridor abruptly widens into a wide, full depth blotch, that often lies against the leaf margin. The larva may leave its mine and continue elsewere, even on a different leaf. Also the first blotch may already lie on a different leaf. Frass dispersed, in oval granules. Most frass is ejected through semicircular cuts along the outer limit of the blotch; part of it is often trapped in strands of silk under the leaf.
Betulaceae, Rosaceae; narrowly polyphagous on woody plants
Betula pendula, pubescens; Chaenomeles japonica; Cotoneaster integerrimus; Crategus monogyna; Cydonia oblonga; Mespilus germanica; Prunus armeniaca, cerasifera, dulcis, mahaleb, persica, spinosa; Pyrus communis; Sorbus.
In North America a pest on Malus domestica.
Larvae in July and September – October (Hering, 1957a), but in the Netherlands dead (parasitised) larvae were found in end-August.
BE recorded (De Prins, 2003a).
NE recorded (Ellis & Zwier, 2004a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).
LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009), but certainly present.
distribution within Europe
All Europe, except Ireland, and the Mediterranean Islands (Fauna Europaea, 2009); Iberia )Laštůvka & Laštůvka, 2015a). In Britain after 1900 not seen, and considered extinct flor many year (Emmet, 1985a); but recently the species is found here and there (Kitchener, 2010a).
In a greenish cocoon that is attached to some silken strands under a leaf. See Patočka (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), for a description of the pupa.
Lyonetia speculella Clemens, 1862.
Contrary to what almost is a rule for leaf mines, most prunifoliella mines are in the very youngest leaves.
Baryshnikova (2007a), Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Borkowski (2003a), Buhr (1935a, 1964a), Buszko (1981a, 1992b), Ellis & Zwier (2004a), Emmet (1985a), Grandi (1931a, 1933a), Haase (1942a), Hartig (1939a), Hering (1930b, 1957a, 1961a), Huber (1969a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ellis (2009a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2004a), Kitchener (2010a), Klimesch & Skala (1936b), Kuroko (1964a), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2015a), Maček (1999a), Patočka (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), De Prins (2003a), De Prins & Steeman (2014a), De Prins, Steeman & Sierens (2016a), Robbins (1991a), Roweck & Savenkov (2010a), Schmitt, Brown & Davis (1996a), Seven (2006a), Skala (1951a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Starý (1930a), Stolnicu (2007a, 2008a), Szőcs (1977a), Ureche (2010a).