this genus consists of a species swarm in the high Alps (possibly also in other mountain ranges outside of Europe, but that is not yet fully known.) The species are extremely similar; in many species the females have reduced wings and are hardly capable of flying. Most species live in highly isolated, small areas that are assumed to have been free of ice during the Pleistocene. In isolation, exacerbated by low dispersal potential of the females, populations would have evolved here into separate species.
As far as known, almost all species live on Saxifraga; a few live on Parnassia. Young larvae for a while live endophytically; older ones live among leaves that are spun together, or in a silken tube. Generally, species feeding on relatively large and broad-leaved plants start as miners, those on plants with narrow or scale-like leaves begin as stem borers. The biology of many species is not yet known; they are not discussed in this site.
Huemer & Mutanen (2015a), Huemer & Tarmann (1991a)..