Eriocrania cicatricella (Zetterstedt, 1839)
Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Mol © Carina Van Steenwinkel: occupied mine
Betula, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Geel, Hezemeer © Carina Van Steenwinkel: even without opening the mine it is striking how hyaline the living larvae are.
Betula, Belgium, prov. Namur, Lives-sur-Meuse © Jean-Yves Baugnée
Large full depth blotch, adjacent to the leaf margin. The mine is not completely eaten out, which gives it a greenish or off-white aspect. Frass in threads, that seem to be somewhat shorter than in other Eriocrania‘s. The mine harbours 2-4 strikingly hyaline larvae. Pupation in the ground. Older mines wither and wear off; in summer no trace of them is left.
Betula pendula, pubescens.
Mines in May (Heath, 1983a).
BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).
NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).
LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
distribution within Europe
From Fennoscandia and northern Russia to the Pyrenees, Italy, and Romania, and from Ireland to South Russia (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
Allochapmania, Eriocrania purpurella (Haworth, 1828); Eriocrania haworthi Bradley, 1966; Eriocrania rubroaurella (Haworth, 1828).
Bengtsson (2008a), Buhr (1935a), Heath (1983a), Hellers (2016a), Hering (1957a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Maček (1999a), De Prins & Steeman (2011a), Robbins (1991a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Starý (1930a), Toll (1959a).