Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Eriocrania sangii

Eriocrania sangii (Wood, 1891)

large birch purple

on Betula

Eriocrania sangii: occupied mine on Betula pendula

Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Balen, Scheps, 25.iv.2014 © Carina Van Steenwinkel

Eriocrania sangii: pccupied mine on Betula spec.

Betula spec, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Balen, Griesbroek, 26.iv.215 © Carina Van Steenwinkel: the oviposition in then still very young leaf often results in a large gap in the lamina

Eriocrania sangii: occupied mine on Betula pendula

Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Dilsen-Stokkem, Negenoord-Kerkeweerd, 23.iv.2017 © Carina Van Steenwinkel: sometimes two larvae in a mine

Eriocrania sangii mine

Betula, Haren, Hortus de Wolf, 8.v.2010 © Kees Boele: mine with mature larva

Eriocrania sangii larva

Betula, Soest © Hetty Soetekouw: the lead coloured larva


Large, white, primary, full depth blotch, following upon a very short gallery. The mine begins close to the leaf margin, expanding deeper into the leaf. Frass in striking, long threads. Pupation in the soil. Vacated mines shrivel and wither away; later in summer not even a trace remains.

Only the larva enables a certain identification.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula pendula, pubescens.


Mines in late-March till May (Heath, 1983a).


BE not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2009).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

From Fennoscandia and northern Russia tot the Pyrenees and Alps, and from Ireland to Romania (Fauna Europaea, 2009).



Baran (2013a), Bengtsson (2008a), Heath (1983a), Hellers (2016a), Hering (1957a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kurz (2016a), De Prins & Steeman (2011a), De Prins, Steeman & Sierens (2016a), Robbins (1991a), Sønderup (1949a), Tokár, Richter, Richter, ao (2010a).

Last modified 10.iii.2021