A small family with 8 species in Europe. The larvae mine in the leaf blade, sometimes also in the petiole or in a thick vein (some species make galls). The miner always finishes its larval life by excising an small piece from the upper and lower epidermis of its mine, spinning them together, and then dropping to the ground in this case. They line the inside of the case with more silk, forming a cocoon. They hibernate in the cocoon; pupation takes place after the winter. Heliozelidae and species of the related family Incurvariidae insert their eggs into the leaf tissue by means of an ovipositor. Many species are associated with the plant family Vitaceae.
Davis (1987a), Dziurzynski (1958a) Emmet (1983a), van Nieukerken, Wagner ao (2012a), Parenti (2008a).