Lampronia fuscatella (Tengström, 1848)
Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Seloignes, Réserve naturelle de la Fourchinée; © Stéphane Claerebout
More or less rotund swelling in branches of 3-13 mm diameter, generally at a node; often several adjacent nodes are galled. Larva usually solitary. It is fully grown near the end of the summer, and hibernates in the mine. In spring an exit hole is prepared, closed with silk and camouflaged at the outside with reddish-brown frass. Then a tough, whitish cocoon is made in which pupation takes place. The moths appear in May-June.
Incurvaria tenuicornis Stainton, 1854.
Bowdrey (1988a), Buhr (1964a), Heath & Pelham-Clinton (1983a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a)