Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Ectoedemia occultella

Ectoedemia occultella (Linnaeus, 1767)

large birch pigmy

Ectoedemia occultella mine

Betula pendula, Susteren

Ectoedemia occultella: egg

Betula, Vogelenzang; egg

Ectoedemia occultella: mines on Betula pendula

Betula pendula, Denmark © Simon Haarder

Ectoedemia occultella: opened mine with larva

opened mine with larva


Egg usually at the underside of the leaf. The mine is a roundish, often almost circular, primary, upper-surface blotch without a trace of an initial corridor; often several mines in leaf. The mine has a conspicuous dark centre, where the larva often retreats. Young mines consist of only the dark centre, without the light periphery (van Frankenhuyzen & de Vries, 1979a). Also the frass is accumulated here; unlike in Leucoptera malifoliella, the frass is not draped in arcs around the centre.

host plants

Betulaceae, almost monophagous

Betula ermanii, grossa, humilis, nana, obscura, pendula, pubescens.

In Finland occasionally mines have been found on Salix pentandra, but not yet reared (Johansson ao, 1990a; van Nieukerken ao, 2010a).


Mines start their development in June, and full grown larvae can be found from August till November, tawards the end in green islands (Johansson ao, 1990a).


BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2009).

LUX recorded (Ellis, Kautenbach).

distribution within Europe

Check (PESI, 2018); also Iberian Peninsula



Stigmella occultella; St. mediofasciella (Haworth, 1828); Ectoedemia, Stigmella, argentipedella (Zeller, 1839).

parasitoids, predators

Cirrospilus vittatus; ? Pnigalio agraules, soemius.


Ahr (1966a), Bachmaier (1965a), Bengtsson (2008a), Borkowski (1969a), Buhr (1935a, 1936a, 1964a), Buszko & Baraniak (1989a), Černý (2001a), Corley, Marabuto & Pires (2007a), Deutsch (2012a), Diškus & Stonis (2012a), Embacher & Huemer (2008a), Emmet (1971a, 1983a), van Frankenhuyzen & Houtman (1972a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), van Frankenhyzen & de Vries (1979a), Gustafsson (1985a), Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a), Haase (1942a), Hartig (1939a), Hering (1927b, 1957a), Huber (1969a), Johansson ao (1990a), Kasy (1985a), Klimesch (1950c, 1958c), Kollár (2007a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kozlov & Kullberg (2006a), Kozlov, van Nieukerken, Zverev & Zvereva (2013a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kurz (2016a), Kvičala (1938a), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (1997a, 2017a), Lepiforum (2024), Maček (1999a), van Nieukerken (1985a, 1986a, 2006a), van Nieukerken, Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2006a, 2010a), van Nieukerken, Zolotuhin & Mistchenko (2004a), Nowakowski (1954a), Plóciennik, Pawlikiewicz & Jaworski (2011a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a), Sefrová (2005a), Skala (1939a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Skorb, Diškus & Stonis (0000a), Sønderup (1949a), Szőcs (1968a, 1977a, 1981a), Viramo (1962a), Wullaert (2015a), Zoerner (1969a, 1970a).

Last modified 5.i.2024