Stigmella betulicola (Stainton, 1856)

common birch pigmy

on Betula

Stigmella betulicola: occupied mine on Betula pendula

Betula pendula, Hungary, Kimle, 28.vi.2018 © László Érsek

Stigmella betulicola: occupied mine on Betula pendula

detail

Stigmella betulicola mines

Betula pendula, Beegde

Betula pendula, Belgium, Viroinval

mine

Egg at the underside of the leaf, close to a vein. The mine is a little widening, rather short, tortuous corridor. The first part does not encircle the egg, neither is it lower-surface.The frass line is one third to one half of the width of the corridor. The sides of the corridor are smooth, not scalloped out. Mostly several mines in a leaf, not infrequently crossing each other. Pupation external, exit slit in the lower epidermis.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula alleghaniensis, humilis, maximowicziana, nana, pendula, pubescens.

phenology

Larvae in July and in September – early-November (Emmet, 1983a).

BENELUX

BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).

LUX recorded (Ellis, Dudelange).

distribution within Europe

Europe, excluding the Iberian and Balkan Peninsula, and the Mediterranean Islands (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

larva

synonyms

Nepticula betulicola; Stigmella nanivora Petersen, 1930.

notes

In comparison with Stigmella luteella more frequent on seedlings (Emmet, 1983a; Johansson ao, 1990a).

references

Ahr (1966a), Anisimovas, Diškus & Stonis (2006a), Bachmaier (1965a), Bengtsson (2008a), Borkowski (1969a), Buhr (1935a, 1964a), Buszko (1992b), Černý (2001a), Diškus & Stonis (2012a), Emmet (1971a, 1983a), Gustafsson (1985a), Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a), Haase (1942a), Hartig (1939a), Hering (1927b, 1932b, 1957a), Huemer (2012a), Johansson ao (1990a), Kasy (1985a), Klimesch (1948a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a) Kozlov, van Nieukerken, Zverev & Zvereva (2013a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kurz (2016a), Z & A Laštuvka (1997a), Matošević, Pernek, Dubravac & Barić (2009a), Navickaitė, Diškus & Stonis (2011a), van Nieukerken (1986a, 2006a), van Nieukerken, A & Z Laštuvka (2006a), van Nieukerken, Zolotuhin & Mistchenko (2004a), Plóciennik, Pawlikiewicz & Jaworski (2011a), De Prins (1998a), De Prins & Steeman (2013a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a), Sefrová (2005a), Sønderup (1949a), Skala (1939a, 1951a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Stammer (2016a), Starý (1930a), Steuer (1995a), Szőcs (1977a, 1981a), Viramo (1962a), Wullaert (2015a), Yefremova & Kravchenko (2015a), Zoerner (1969a, 1970a).

mod 26.viii.2019