Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Stigmella betulicola

Stigmella betulicola (Stainton, 1856)

common birch pigmy

on Betula

Stigmella betulicola: occupied mine on Betula pendula

Betula pendula, Hungary, Kimle, © László Érsek

Stigmella betulicola: occupied mine on Betula pendula


Stigmella betulicola mines

Betula pendula, Beegde

Betula pendula, Belgium, Viroinval


Egg at the underside of the leaf, close to a vein. The mine is a little widening, rather short, tortuous corridor. The first part does not encircle the egg, neither is it lower-surface.The frass line is one third to one half of the width of the corridor. The sides of the corridor are smooth, not scalloped out. Mostly several mines in a leaf, not infrequently crossing each other. Pupation external, exit slit in the lower epidermis.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula alleghaniensis, humilis, maximowicziana, nana, pendula, pubescens.


Larvae in July and in September – early-November (Emmet, 1983a).


BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2009).

LUX recorded (Ellis, Dudelange).

distribution within Europe

Europe, excluding the Iberian and Balkan Peninsula, and the Mediterranean Islands (Fauna Europaea, 2009).



Nepticula betulicola; Stigmella nanivora Petersen, 1930.


In comparison with Stigmella luteella more frequent on seedlings (Emmet, 1983a; Johansson ao, 1990a).


Ahr (1966a), Anisimovas, Diškus & Stonis (2006a), Bachmaier (1965a), Bengtsson (2008a), Borkowski (1969a), Buhr (1935a, 1964a), Buszko (1992b), Černý (2001a), Diškus & Stonis (2012a), Emmet (1971a, 1983a), Gustafsson (1985a), Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a), Haase (1942a), Hartig (1939a), Hering (1927b, 1932b, 1957a), Huemer (2012a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2004a), Johansson ao (1990a), Kasy (1985a), Klimesch (1948a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a) Kozlov, van Nieukerken, Zverev & Zvereva (2013a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kurz (2016a), Laštuvka & Laštuvka (1997a), Lepiforum (2024), Matošević, Pernek, Dubravac & Barić (2009a), Navickaitė, Diškus & Stonis (2011a), van Nieukerken (1986a, 2006a), van Nieukerken, Laštuvka & Laštuvka (2006a), van Nieukerken, Zolotuhin & Mistchenko (2004a), Plóciennik, Pawlikiewicz & Jaworski (2011a), De Prins (1998a), De Prins & Steeman (2013a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a), Sefrová (2005a), Skala (1939a, 1951a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Skorb, Diškus & Stonis (0000a), Sønderup (1949a), Stammer (2016a), Starý (1930a), Steuer (1995a), Szőcs (1977a, 1981a), Viramo (1962a), Wullaert (2015a), Yefremova & Kravchenko (2015a), Zoerner (1969a, 1970a).

Last modified 5.i.2024