Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Stigmella confusella

Stigmella confusella (Wood & Walsingham, 1894)

pale birch pigmy

on Betula

Stigmella confusella: vacated mine on Betula pubescens

Betula pubescens, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Olen, 13.viii.2017 © Carina Van Steenwinkel

Stigmella confusella mine

Betula pubescens, Overveen

same mine, detail


Egg at the underside of the leaf, close to a vein. The mine is a very long and slender gallery, hardly widening at all. Frass in a continuous, very narrow central line. The corridor follows veins over long distances, obtaining thereby an angular appearance.


Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula nana, pendula, pubescens.


Larvae in Britain in June – August (Emmet, 1983a).


BE recorded (van Nieukerken, 2006a).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2009).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

From Fennoscandia to the Pyrenees, Alps, and Bulgaria, and from Ireland tot Central Russia (Fauna Europaea, 2009).



Nepticula confusella.


Ahr (1966a), Anisimovas, Diškus & Stonis (2006a), Bengtsson (2008a), Borkowski (1969a), Buhr (1935a, 1964a), Černý (2001a), Diškus & Stonis (2012a), Emmet (1071a, 1983a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Gustafsson (1985a), Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a), Haase (1942a), Hering (1927b, 1934b, 1957a), Huber (1969a), Huemer (2007a), Johansson ao (1990a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kozlov & Kullberg (2010a), Kozlov, van Nieukerken, Zverev & Zvereva (2013a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kurz (2016a), Z & A Laštuvka (1997a), Maček (1999a), Navickaitė, Diškus & Stonis (2011a, 2014a), van Nieukerken (1986a, 2006a), van Nieukerken, A & Z Laštuvka (2006a), Nowakowski (1954a), De Prins & Steeman (2011a, 2013a), Pröse, Kolbeck & Segerer (2003a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a), Skala (1939a), Sønderup (1949a), Stammer (2016a), Steuer (1995a), Surányi (1942a), Szőcs (1977a), Zoerner (1969a, 1970a).

Last modified 15.iii.2022